Czy liberalizm jest moralny? Szkice z polskiego liberalizmu
Keywords:liberalism, ethics, freedom, property, political thought, state, individual, individualism, catholicism, marxism, tradition
IS LIBERALISM MORAL? REFLECTIONS ON POLISH LIBERALISM
Polish liberalism is a fruitful area of scientific exploration, as it still has not been comprehensively described. There is a conviction that liberalism was impossible in Poland. This is both true and definitely false. It is true that liberalism in the Poland in the practice of social life was indeed marginal. However, it is not true that there was no liberal reflection. From the eighteenth century until the Second World War, there is a lively liberal trend in relation to theoretical reflection. The study of the intellectual achievements of Polish liberals of the last two centuries is a very inspiring task, because on the one hand one may see the reception of Western European social and political thought, on the other, what is original and native. Liberal reflection in Poland was associated with the Catholic tradition, in it one may find many references to the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas. That is why, when dealing with issues of liberal ethics, it cannot be identified only with utilitarianism. The essence of the problem is to capture all sources of influence, even unconscious ones, which are transferred in the form of archetypes. It is necessary to situate ethical values in a historical, cultural, social and religious context. Catholicism plays a special role here, as it has influenced Polish spiritual and intellectual culture for centuries. The influences of Polish philosophy cannot be ignored in the long perspective, either, because the products of the human spirit and intellect, such as facts or historical events are not subject to periodization.